Miisaanka Twilight The

Tani waa maqaal xiiso leh by Regis Wellausen daabacay MundoGEO Magazine, taas oo ina xusuusinaysa in aan dib loo celin karin bayaannada kuxiran ee Catastro2014 oo ay soo saareen FIG labaatan sano ka hor, gaar ahaan marka la eegayo qaabaynta beddelka sawir-qaadashada caadiga ah.

Soo jeedinta qaraashka xaalada deg dega ah ee beddelaya barxadda waayeelka.

Fikradda miisaanka - xidhiidhka ka dhexeeya qiyaasta qorshaha iyo cabbirka dhabta ah ee berrinka - Waa qayb ka mid ah DNA-da dadka tan iyo markii ay socdeen jid-gooyooyinka waaweyn ay ku foognaayeen khariidadaha khariidada ee 1.500. Iyadoo lagu saleynayo "qalad garaafeedka", Qodobada farsamo ee qeexitaankooda soo saarista, miisaan kasta, qaladaadka haraaga ah ee aan u baahanahay in aan tixgelinno inta u dhexaysa dhirta iyo dhulka, go'aan qaadashada maalinlaha ah marka la isticmaalayo dukumintiyadaas.
In Brazil, Sugnaantu Diiwaanka Cartográfica (PEC), kuwaas oo hadda waa popularization fudud soo daahay ee Qadarka 89.817 / 1984 si gaar ah loogu talagalay aerophotogrammetry analog dhisayaa saddex nooc oo tayo leh, ka jaban ah, loo yaqaan Class C (taas oo ah had iyo jeer), qaladka haraaga ah waa milimitir 1,0 ee heerka. Sidoo kale, marka "cabbiro" on dhirta, our DNA xajiya qalad xusuusta iyo processor dulinka aad maskax ahaan organic riday oo dhan xisaabinta ee goolasha ay ku baadi duurka ku. Tusaale ahaan, haddii aan talooyin qiyaasta qeybta qiyaasay kun oo mitir ee warshad 1: 10.000, waa in aan ogaannaa in duurka u dhexeeya 990 iyo 1.010 heli lahaa mitir.

hoos u dhaca miisaanka
Miisaanka 1864: faahfaahin ka mid ah warshad kala qaybinta sawir ee Boqortooyada Brazil.

Qiyaasta Dijital ah ee Dunida Dijital ah

Xaqiiqada weyni waa inaanan mashaariicdan ku samaynayno khariidadaha durugsan ee warqadda oo aynaan ka walwalsaneyn heerka saxda ah ee badeecadaha kama dambaysta ah ee daabacan, ka dibna cid kale ma cabiri doonto miisaankooda. Maxaa muhiim ah tayada kaliya ee ay muujinayaan iyo / ama dukumeentadu waa fikradaha iyo fikradaheena. Hawlgallada xogta qallafsan iyo alaabooyinka ugu dambeeya ee hawlgalku horey u ahaa ayaa horeba u noqon doona kuwo dijitaal ah. Dhexdhexaadintan, dhammaan macluumaadka - taas oo lagama maarmaanka u ah nidaamka isku xirka Cartesian - had iyo gorfaynta, noo ogolaaday inaan si xor ah ku kala duwan yihiin baaxadda zoom iyo xulashada absolutism oo xisaab kasta element magnetism osnap tiro ama amarka u dhigma - wax fakari karin for 500 sano!. Sidaa darteed, waxaa jira baadi noqnoqda on our sax muuqaal ah ama design xasiloonida, asaaska baadi graphic, mana marka aan akhriyo ama marka aan la qorsheeyo lahayn. soo gudbiyey, oo hurda kaliya ee waa in aan la walwalsan la waa habka soo noqnoqda wax soo saar leh oo aad warbixin ka da'ayeen loo isticmaalo, waxa dulinka (CAD, GIS) ama shax (Images) waa, ayaa in ka badan, kuwaas oo aan jira arrimo dheeraad ah oo la xidhiidha in "Baadi graphic" ah.

Xalinta Khilaafka

xallinta mawqifyada The dheer la soo bandhigay ka "qaraarada" kale oo gooni loo sooco sanamyo satellite, sida joomateri, radiometric, temporal, iwm, taas oo ay biloowday in 90 hore in ay noo cadeynayaa of sax wadci ciidamada ka barbaro sawirada dhijitaalka ah - sheyga oo ka horreeya sawiradii hore ee qaraarka.
xallinta mawqifka waxaa halkan lagu qeexaa sida saxnaanta georeferencing sanamkii, in uu yahay, farqiga u booska (wadataa) wax kasta oo qaraabo xoog digital si ay booska run dhulka ama, more determinedly hadlayay, at turnoff ah - qaababka kala duwanaanshaha u dhaxeeya meelaha taageerada loo isticmaalo, sawirka ama dhulalka. Xalinta booska waxaa lagu dabaqayaa isla siman si loo helo macluumaadka vector. In baadhitaan digital, tusaale ahaan, xallinta mawqifyada ee alaabta final noqon doonaa weecasho caadiga ah ee farqiga u dhexeeya wadataa xubno, akhriyey (CAD, tusaale ahaan) software oo markii danbe qiyaasay duurka ku (with GPS, tusaale ahaan ). Haddii aad xiisaynayso ee naqshadeeye iyo xaqiiq ah in aan waxba waa metro ugu socda Waddooyinkiisa 1 mustaqbalka, markay ku yaal, in uu yahay xalka booska waa in ay qaataan sahanka. Taas, marka hore, waxay xor u noqon doontaa in la doorto habka lagu fulin karo iyada oo la adeegsanayo tiknoolajiyada la isticmaalo, marwalba wuxuu noqonayaa ama ka masuul ah tayada la cayimay.
Marka la soo gabagabeynayo, qiyaasta xalka ah waxaa loo isticmaali karaa inay noqoto xakamayn nabadgelyo leh ee tayada kartida ee xogta maareynta dhexdhexaad ah ee dhexdhexaad ah, aasaas u ah go'aan qaadashada xadka ama suurtagalka codsiyada. Dhanka kale, isagoo ah xuduudaha soo noqnoqonaya habka wax soo saar leh, xalinta xalka ayaa ah mid u dhexaysa sheyga waxaana ku xiran waajibaadka farsamada ee fuliyaha.
Taas ayaa ka dhigaysa suurtogal ah diiwaangelinta annotation ah Mas'uuliyadaha Technical (ART) iyo xaqiijisatay in guurka iyo isticmaalka labada dhinac saddexaad. Waqti kasta, xallinta qandaraas booska la xaqiijin karo oo duurka ku qiyaaseysaa meel saamiga qaababka lagu qeexay ama xubno ka ah. By markii ugu aynu hore u haysanay dareemayaal kala duwan, soo saara images-xalinta sare ee ganacsiga iyo kharash yar, dhammaan fursadaha orthorectified by Shuttle Mission dhiismeedka Radar (SRTM) ama Spaceborne Advanced kulul Emission iyo Milicsi Radiometer / Global Digital Sare u qaadid Model (Aster / Gdem ) georreferenciarlas ku filan oo ku filan si ay u rogi doonaan farsamooyin database-wadci lagu kalsoonaan karo, awood si uu u bedelo ama kabo beerta trabajaos qaali ah oo gaabis ah, lagama maarmaan waayo, shuqulladiisa oo mashaariic injineernimada.

Aplicaciones

Tusaale ahaan muhiimada iyo codsiga ayaa lagu arki karaa shaxanka. Waxaa la soo bandhigay, kiis ee georeferencing hantida miyiga (10.267 / sharciga 01), kala duwanaanshaha iyo cabbiridda vertex isuduwaha "P", laga heli by habka soomi guurto ah (GPS L1 / L2), waxaa looga tegey, iyo si toos ah u cabbiraan image sare oo xallin, midig. WolrdView2 The image satellite ah 2010, waxaa georeferenced natiijo of a mitir 1,5 xalinta mawqifyada, ama mid ka mid ah tirooyinka uma kala duwanaan karaan by mitir ka badan iyo badh ah booska dhabta ah, taas oo ah xadka hadda aqbalay Incra dib u soo celinta dhibcooyinka. Sida lagu xusay, dhammaan khilaafaadka waa ka yar yahay saxnimada gaarka ah. Qabsashada xalinta mawqifyada 1,5 2,5 oo mitir, siday u kala horreeyaan, waxay u ogolaaneysaa faafinta codsiga ammaan ah oo shidma fog si loo yareeyo kharashka iyo waqtiga go'aaminta wadataa ee aan geesaha monumentados iyo xuduudaha dabiiciga ah la arki karo ka kor ku xusan. georeferencing Professional of images kala duwan leh xalinta isku booska tira duwo akhrinta xadka isku mid ah iyo, Sidaa darteed, xirfadle labaad si fudud u hubin kartaa wadataa ee ugu horreeyey. Milkiilaha Win, yaa bixinaya qiimo ka jaban, guul xirfadeed, taas oo uu leeyahay qiime jaban leh faa'iido isku mid ah; iyo kasban dalka, taas oo yaraynaysa wakhtiga iyo horumarka iyo shahaado malaayiin guryaha.

hoos u dhaca miisaanka
Georeferencing guryaha miyiga: vertex "P" weheliyaan galo, qiyaastay GPS L1 / L2 (toos ah) iyo si toos ah on image ah aragtida 2 (toos ah). image waxay leedahay xal joomateri 0,5 mitir (dibi note on toos ah) iyo waxaa georeferenced si ay u gaaraan mitir 1,5 xalinta booska.

Farqiga Qaadashada (miisaanka)
BVC P 0658 - P3 = 0,91
BVP P 0657 - P2 = 0,43
BVC P 0656 - P1 = 0,55

Sida miisaan cilmaani ah, waa lama huraan in ay jireyso xidiga reer caddaymaha tayada wax soo saarka wadci digital ah oo uu noqdo coayudante a suurto gal. Waa sida Google Earth, halkaas oo la heli karo ee hoos ku, waa si toos ah, haddii aad "Hagaaji", kale sababta ay muhiim u tahay?, Waxaan rabnaa in la ogaado, in fact, mar kasta oo aad ka dhaansado qaab, aan u cabbirno qeybta ama aad u hesho a duwo, iyo maxay tahay xalka rasmiga ah ee sawirradaada, si aad u ogaato waxa aan ku sameyn karno macluumaadka la soo saaray. Dhanka kale, fikraddaada iyo tixraacaada ayaa dhab ahaantii ku jiri doona geesaha maskaxda iyo dukumintiyadayada. gabbaro Sharaf leh in khayraadka aasaasiga ah ee 500 sano, taas oo ka mid ah mudnaanta badan keenay Aabayaalkanno oo naga caawiyey dhiso adduunka ka fiican hadda aan ku raaxeysto.

Hal Jawaab u Jawaab "Ocaso de la Escala"

  1. article aad u xiiso badan falanqeeyo utility ee baaxadda dunida digital this of sax aan la koobi karayn. Saraaxad, waxaan arkaa mid lagu guuleystay, sucribirlo karin, laakiin, in my opinion, uma maleynayo in miisaanka waa in uu leexan ayaa lagu wadaa marka saara graphic kasta, macluumaad wadci iyo planimetric maxaa yeelay, inkastoo wax soo saarka iyo xataa waxyaabaha ay tahay digital, had iyo jeer, si degdeg ah ama goor dambe, mid ka mid ah ama qaab kale jirka ama digital mar kale, waxaan iyada u keeni doonaa horumarinta si ay aragti ah, iyo in uu yahay marka aad u baahan tahay si aad u dalbato kuwan fikrado khalad, mahadnaq, saxnaanta, iwm

    Oh! Waa raaxo leh inaad ku raaxeysatid geofumadas, in aan faahfaahin faahfaahsan iyo, si fiican, muhiim maahan in la aqoonsado, sax?

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